(12) In some NENA dialects this new preterite from Class II verbs keeps an effective vocalism (m)CoCiC- otherwise (m)CuCiC- without any forerunner in the earlier dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) recommended that the progressive function is associated with the brand new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he took they out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Variations having o or you is actually missing outside NENA and possess a number of of your own NENA languages: Hertevin, Sanandaj Christian, and you may Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) The entire establish was noted because of the an excellent prefix throughout NENA except Hertevin as well as in Mandaic plus in Turoyo. The new prefix takes one of three variations: (a) k- to your all verbs (advanced in order to c- from inside the Urmi, lengthened in order to ko- just before consonants for the Turoyo, as well as in Zakho to be g- just before datingranking.net/de/geek-dating-sites a spoken phoneme); (b) k- but only on the a finite group of verbs (with voicing intake and sometimes other changes as well); or (c) i- for the all the verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, private interaction); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we do say’, but doqIx-wa-ce ‘we would to see it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he takes, commonly eat’, however, sate ‘he drinks, commonly, may drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin i-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they chase her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The fresh new k- prefix seems to be a success of prefix qa- out-of BT, such as new ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. age ‘stands’. In a number of east languages brand new shipment from k- was restricted to a little class of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In others, it offers vanished and you will been replaced from the another type of prefix i-, hence most likely got its start because the a diminished particular we[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I goes toward the fresh new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla da kIcca ‘I went to promote currency to help you a good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The new verb ‘give’ is actually yehav for the BT, and you may yav into the Syriac. It’s been remade in most NENA languages from incorporation of the after the l- ‘to’. The latest vital, which had been hav for the Syriac and BT, is actually hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in all NENA wherein I have advice, not in the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic.
(15) In most NENA, the one imperative away from qyama ‘get up’ has lost the latest m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Christian qu (Panoussi, 110). The latest plural, although not, keeps the latest yards.
(16) In every NENA, the new essential from (i)zala ‘go’ is abnormal: Aradhin au moment ou (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani si (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) All over NENA, a number of different terminology can be used due to the fact ft getting reflexive pronouns such as ‘myself’. He’s: ruh- in the Hertevin plus Turoyo, nos- throughout the around three easternmost Jewish languages, and you can gyan- regarding the remaining dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
It qa- are alone a great contraction off qa?
(18) A different sort of preposition definition ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ which will take the design ta, tla, otherwise tla is widespread, regardless of if perhaps not universal, in the NENA, however used in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) involved cook’ (Rubba, individual communication), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga facts ‘no you to definitely established the doorway to help you him’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 182).